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This practice was referred to as Two Kings, Three Reverences. According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not basically different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang.
King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao.
Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power.
Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency.
Even though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans and several Dongyi tribes, the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, and further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east.
Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations.
Peripheral territories developed local power and prestige on par with that of the Zhou. Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion.
The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over five more centuries of rule.
The Confucian chronicle of the early years of this process led to its title of the " Spring and Autumn " period. Others followed, marking a turning point, as rulers did not even entertain the pretence of being vassals of the Zhou court, instead proclaiming themselves fully independent kingdoms.
A series of states rose to prominence before each falling in turn, and Zhou was a minor player in most of these conflicts. The last Zhou king is traditionally taken to be Nan , who was killed when Qin captured the capital Wangcheng  in BC.
A " King Hui " was declared, but his splinter state was fully removed by BC. The Eastern Zhou, however, is also remembered as the golden age of Chinese philosophy: the Hundred Schools of Thought which flourished as rival lords patronized itinerant shi scholars is led by the example of Qi 's Jixia Academy.
The Nine Schools of Thought which came to dominate the others were Confucianism as interpreted by Mencius and others , Legalism , Taoism , Mohism , the utopian communalist Agriculturalism , two strains of Diplomatists , the sophistic Logicians , Sun-tzu 's Militarists , and the Naturalists.
The Mohists , for instance, found little interest in their praise of meritocracy but much acceptance for their mastery of defensive siege warfare; much later, however, their arguments against nepotism were used in favor of establishing the imperial examination system.
Zhou rulers introduced what was to prove one of East Asia's most enduring political doctrines: the concept of the " Mandate of Heaven ".
They did this by asserting that their moral superiority justified taking over Shang wealth and territories, and that heaven had imposed a moral mandate on them to replace the Shang and return good governance to the people.
The Mandate of Heaven was presented as a religious compact between the Zhou people and their supreme god in heaven literally the 'sky god'. The Zhou agreed that since worldly affairs were supposed to align with those of the heavens, the heavens conferred legitimate power on only one person, the Zhou ruler.
In return, the ruler was duty-bound to uphold heaven's principles of harmony and honor. Any ruler who failed in this duty, who let instability creep into earthly affairs, or who let his people suffer, would lose the mandate.
Under this system, it was the prerogative of spiritual authority to withdraw support from any wayward ruler and to find another, more worthy one.
In using this creed, the Zhou rulers had to acknowledge that any group of rulers, even they themselves, could be ousted if they lost the mandate of heaven because of improper practices.
The book of odes written during the Zhou period clearly intoned this caution. The early Zhou kings contended that heaven favored their triumph because the last Shang kings had been evil men whose policies brought pain to the people through waste and corruption.
After the Zhou came to power, the mandate became a political tool. One of the duties and privileges of the king was to create a royal calendar.
This official document defined times for undertaking agricultural activities and celebrating rituals. But unexpected events such as solar eclipses or natural calamities threw the ruling house's mandate into question.
Since rulers claimed that their authority came from heaven, the Zhou made great efforts to gain accurate knowledge of the stars and to perfect the astronomical system on which they based their calendar.
Zhou legitimacy also arose indirectly from Shang material culture through the use of bronze ritual vessels, statues , ornaments, and weapons.
Many of its members were Shang, who were sometimes forcibly transported to new Zhou to produce the bronze ritual objects which were then sold and distributed across the lands, symbolizing Zhou legitimacy.
There were many similarities between the decentralized systems. In matters of inheritance, the Zhou dynasty recognized only patrilineal primogeniture as legal.
The system, also called "extensive stratified patrilineage", was defined by the anthropologist Kwang-chih Chang as "characterized by the fact that the eldest son of each generation formed the main of line descent and political authority, whereas the younger brothers were moved out to establish new lineages of lesser authority.
The farther removed, the lesser the political authority". Ebrey defines the descent-line system as follows: "A great line ta-tsung is the line of eldest sons continuing indefinitely from a founding ancestor.
A lesser line is the line of younger sons going back no more than five generations. Great lines and lesser lines continually spin off new lesser lines, founded by younger sons".
Brashier writes in his book "Ancestral Memory in Early China" about the tsung-fa system of patrilineal primogeniture: "The greater lineage, if it has survived, is the direct succession from father to eldest son and is not defined via the collateral shifts of the lesser lineages.
In discussions that demarcate between trunk and collateral lines, the former is called a zong and the latter a zu, whereas the whole lineage is dubbed the shi.
This type of unilineal descent-group later became the model of the Korean family through the influence of Neo-Confucianism , as Zhu Xi and others advocated its re-establishment in China.
Centralization became more necessary as the states began to war among themselves and decentralization encouraged more war.
If a duke took power from his nobles, the state would have to be administered bureaucratically by appointed officials.
Despite these similarities, there are a number of important differences from medieval Europe. One obvious difference is that the Zhou ruled from walled cities rather than castles.
When a dukedom was centralized, these people would find employment as government officials or officers. These hereditary classes were similar to Western knights in status and breeding, but unlike Western clergy were expected to be something of a scholar instead of a warrior.
Being appointed, they could move from one state to another. Some would travel from state to state peddling schemes of administrative or military reform.
Those who could not find employment would often end up teaching young men who aspired to official status. The most famous of these was Confucius , who taught a system of mutual duty between superiors and inferiors.
In contrast, the Legalists had no time for Confucian virtue and advocated a system of strict laws and harsh punishments. The wars of the Warring States were finally ended by the most legalist state of all, Qin.
When the Qin dynasty fell and was replaced by the Han dynasty , many Chinese were relieved to return to the more humane virtues of Confucius. Agriculture in the Zhou dynasty was very intensive and, in many cases, directed by the government.
All farming lands were owned by nobles, who then gave their land to their serfs , a situation similar to European feudalism.
For example, a piece of land was divided into nine squares in the well-field system , with the grain from the middle square taken by the government and that of surrounding squares kept by individual farmers.
This way, the government was able to store surplus food and distribute it in times of famine or bad harvest.
Some important manufacturing sectors during this period included bronze smelting, which was integral to making weapons and farming tools.
Again, these industries were dominated by the nobility who directed the production of such materials. China's first projects of hydraulic engineering were initiated during the Zhou dynasty, ultimately as a means to aid agricultural irrigation.
The chancellor of Wei , Sunshu Ao , who served King Zhuang of Chu , dammed a river to create an enormous irrigation reservoir in modern-day northern Anhui province.
For this, Sunshu is credited as China's first hydraulic engineer. The later Wei statesman Ximen Bao , who served Marquis Wen of Wei BC , was the first hydraulic engineer of China to have created a large irrigation canal system.
As the main focus of his grandiose project, his canal work eventually diverted the waters of the entire Zhang River to a spot further up the Yellow River.
The early Western Zhou supported a strong army, split into two major units: "the Six Armies of the west" and "the Eight Armies of Chengzhou".
The armies campaigned in the northern Loess Plateau , modern Ningxia and the Yellow River floodplain.
The military prowess of Zhou peaked during the 19th year of King Zhao 's reign, when the six armies were wiped out along with King Zhao on a campaign around the Han River.
Early Zhou kings were true commanders-in-chief. They were in constant wars with barbarians on behalf of the fiefs called guo , which at that time meant "statelet" or "principality".
King Zhao was famous for repeated campaigns in the Yangtze areas and died in his last action. Later kings' campaigns were less effective. King Li led 14 armies against barbarians in the south, but failed to achieve any victory.
King Xuan fought the Quanrong nomads in vain. King You was killed by the Quanrong when Haojing was sacked.
Although chariots had been introduced to China during the Shang dynasty from Central Asia, the Zhou period saw the first major use of chariots in battle.
During the Zhou dynasty, the origins of native Chinese philosophy developed, its initial stages of development beginning in the 6th century BC.
The greatest Chinese philosophers, those who made the greatest impact on later generations of Chinese, were Confucius , founder of Confucianism , and Laozi , founder of Taoism.
Other philosophers, theorists, and schools of thought in this era were Mozi , founder of Mohism ; Mencius , a famous Confucian who expanded upon Confucius' legacy; Shang Yang and Han Fei , responsible for the development of ancient Chinese Legalism the core philosophy of the Qin dynasty ; and Xun Zi , who was arguably the center of ancient Chinese intellectual life during his time, even more so than iconic intellectual figures such as Mencius.
While the system was initially a respected body of concrete regulations, the fragmentation of the Western Zhou period led the ritual to drift towards moralization and formalization in regard to:.
Ji Zhao, a son of King Nan, led a resistance against Qin for five years. The dukedom fell in BC. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Zhou Dynasty.
For other dynasties with the same name, see Zhou. Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history Women in ancient and imperial China.
See also: Predynastic Zhou. Main article: Western Zhou. Main article: Eastern Zhou. Main article: Li Confucian. See also: The family tree of the Zhou kings.
China portal History portal. According to Xu Zhaofeng, "Chengzhou" and "Wangcheng" were originally synonymous and used to name the same capital city from to BC.
Nevertheless, the new Chengzhou was still sometimes called Wangcheng and vice versa, adding to the confusion. Various historians have offered dates for the battle ranging between and BC.
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